Aug 26

**The illusion of our physical reality**

In Plato's "Allegory of the Cave" (Plato's "The Republic"), Plato compared our physical world to shadows on the wall of a cave, suggesting that the real world lay elsewhere. The modern analogy would be a computer display or TV screen, for they simply display images, projections of reality.

We see planets suspended in the apparent nothingness of space held together by mysterious forces like gravitational waves that science still can't detect... and so we might ask, could Plato be correct? - my laptop display is 2-D + time (it has 2 space dimensions, 1280 pixels x 768 pixels and 1 60Hz time dimension) ... so could our own 3-D space + time reality also be a pixel world-view?

In this text I introduce a theory of a universe constructed from a circle and a point and show how this can be used to solve the mystery (and the mass = 9.109382323 e-31kg) of the electron, the most fundamental component of our universe ... and in the process we return to Plato and find that space and time are not what they seem...

Note: this online book reader requires flash.

Plato's Cave; the Alpha and the Omega

can our universe be constructed from circles of radius Omega?

note: at present this website is still constructed around the 2013 edition, hopefully the 2014 edition revision will be online by mid-Feb and then I can update the rest of this site.

**What are the dimensions of our universe?**

We measure the universe around us using common units; the mass of an object using kgs or pounds, time using seconds, charge using amperes, length using meters or feet etc. These seem to us to be distinct units, for example we cannot say the mass of this car is 2000 seconds or the distance from LA to NY is 3000kgs. However although we may describe a coin using 2 different parameters - heads or tails, we acknowledge that these are simply different views of that physical coin. And so, are our dimensions, our world-view, our kilograms and meters and seconds..., like those heads and tails, simply different viewpoints of a deeper reality?

**Sacred geometry and the electron frequency**

Sacred geometry presumes that the universe was created by God according to a specific geometrical plan, in essence it is a search for the fingerprint of God in the make-up of the heavens. The belief that God created the universe thus has ancient origins, Plutarch attributed it to Plato. Conversely, according to Stephen Hawking, "string-theory is the only candidate for a complete theory of the universe". Nevertheless wiki notes; At present, there is yet no candidate theory able to calculate the fine structure constant alpha or the mass of the electron (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Theory_of_everything).

With all due respect to Hawking, I offer here that Plato deserves more consideration. Let us begin with the simplest of geometries; a point, a line and a circle (note: the circumference of a circle = 2pi where pi = 3.14159...) whereby our dimensions become;

M = 1, unit = mass

T = 2pi = 6.2831853..., unit = time

Q = Omega (= 2.0071349...), unit = momentum

From these 3 units, we can make (see secondary units below);

V = velocity (area of a circle, radius r = Omega),

L = length (area of a torus, radii = Omega),

A = charge (cube, side length = Omega).

In other words, what we see as a straight line, the universe sees as the surface area of a torus (a doughnut is shaped like a torus). If so, this means that there is no empty space in the atom, the electron is separated from the proton not by some abstract number known in physics as the Bohr radius (r = 5.29177 x 10 -11 meters) but by an actual physical doughnut shaped torus whose radius is not measured in meters but in motion (actually the square root of momentum). Distance is simply the 'pixel' word we use to describe this torus of motion.

Shown below is a torus example, and a torus cross-section of the atom... the electron and proton are joined by this torus whose radius is not distance but motion (Omega). What we think of as the distance that separates the electron and proton may actually be the surface area of this torus... the premise being that the universe combines geometrical shapes to give the illusion of matter and 3-D space - our pixel world.

Magnets always have a N and a S (north and south), if we cut a magnet in half we always get 2 smaller magnets. A magnetic monopole would be a magnet with 1 (mono) pole (either a N pole or a S pole) but not both N and S. Modern physics theories require that the universe has monopole magnets although they have never been found. However with our circles we can construct a simple monopole using our V and L and A, and from this monopole we can construct an electron. We then compare our theoretical results (9.109382323e-31 kg) with the experimental results in our physics textbook (9.10938291(40)e-31 kg).

Then to confirm our results were not just chance (numerology), we take our same electron formula and replace our circles with the parameters of physics;

V with c = 299792458 m/s (the speed of light),

L with Planck length = 0.1616... e-34 m,

A with elementary charge e = 0.160219... e-18 C,

and when we put these into our monopole formula, we get precisely the same result (9.109382323e-31 kg)!

We then continue to combine our M and T and Q circles in different ways and find that we can solve the remaining fundamental physical constants as simple geometrical forms; G, h, e, me, kB, aG ... and all with CODATA precision (α = Alpha, the fine structure constant).

For those who are familiar with high school physics, I have put the formulas, with an online calculator to verify the precision, on the website planckmomentum.com

**A living universe**

We live in a universe that appears to operate smoothly according to a set of laws which we do not fully understand. Furthermore we have 2 completely different and opposing sciences to describe this universe – the life sciences; biology, organic
chemistry, and the physical sciences; inorganic chemistry, physics... Likewise we have a distinct separation between the spiritual and the scientific worlds although the spiritual realm is intrinsically linked to the life-sciences.

And so we may ask, is it not redundant to have 2 completely different sets of laws to govern a single universe, especially as biological systems clearly integrate seamlessly with physical systems.

We know there is a biological science, we ourselves are evidence of this, and so if there is only 1 set of laws that govern our universe, then these laws may be the laws of organic systems, in other words, the physical sciences may themselves be life sciences.

If our universe is somehow organic in structure then our universe is not simply expanding, it is physically growing, presumably according to a biological mathematics (the mathematics of biological systems). And as biological systems begin with a simple instruction set (the DNA) but quickly develop complexity, could it be that within the 2 mystery numbers, Alpha and Omega, is encoded the DNA of our universe?

Omega ~ 2.00713495...; {Ω^{2} ~ pi^e/e^(e-1)}

Alpha ~ 137.0599...

The mystery of our universe may even be the mystery of life itself.

**Fine-tuning cosmology**

Our universe seems to be a biosphere, ideally suited for life; water is a liquid, stars are stable... and physics doesn't know why. There are 2 main arguments;

1) God designed our universe,

2) Our universe is part of a multiverse, that there are an infinite number of universes, most of whom cannot support life but statistically we might expect that some can.

However if we can reduce our universe to the circle geometry of this Alpha and Omega then arguably our universe is because it could not be otherwise.

As noted on the website planckmomentum.com, I show how we can solve the constants of physics; G (gravitational constant), h (Planck constant), e (elementary charge), c, m_{e} (electron mass), μ_{0} (vacuum permeability), k_{B} (Boltzmanns constant) ... as geometrical shapes using this theory (see the list of secondary constants). Then comparing our results with our physics handbook (known as CODATA 2010) we find a nice agreement down to 10 digits precision.

How significant is this? In an article in Scientific American, J Barrow et al remark; "Some things never change. Physicists call them the constants of nature. Such quantities as the velocity of light, c, Newton's constant of gravitation, G, and the mass of the electron, m_{e} ... form the scaffolding around which the theories of physics are erected, and they define the fabric of our universe. Physics has progressed by making ever more accurate measurements of their values.

And yet, remarkably, no one has ever successfully predicted or explained any of the constants. Physicists have no idea why they take the special numerical values that they do. In SI units, c is 299,792,458; G is 6.673 X 10-11; and m_{e} is 9.10938188 X 10-31 -- numbers that follow no discernible pattern... The only thread running through the values is that if many of them were even slightly different, complex atomic structures such as living beings would not be possible. The desire to explain the constants has been one of the driving forces behind efforts to develop a complete unified description of nature, or "theory of everything."

Physicists have hoped that such a theory would show that each of the constants of nature could have only one logically possible value. It would reveal an underlying order to the seeming arbitrariness of nature.

**The Universe that Isn't**

The classic 1975 bestseller "Tao of Physics" by Dr. Fritjof Capra was an attempt to link the writings of the ancient philosophers and teachers (Pythagoras, Plato, Buddha, Tao etc) with modern physics. However it, as with other contemporary attempts, was limited to an analysis of parallels, that the ancient view-point may somehow provide insights to quantum physics, and so was unable to reach any significant conclusion.

In this text I begin with axioms that resemble the ancient universe (the Ancient Mysteries); in particular the 5 element theory of the universe (earth, water, fire, air, quintessence), the Matrix (all is number), the Harmony of the Spheres (Pythagoras), the Buddhist notion of Emptiness or Nothingness, the Taoist Yin-Yang, Og the Caveman's double spiral and so forth... and show how these may be used to re-interpret observations in modern physics.

However the picture of the Ancient Universe that emerges is not the same as the universe described in our science textbooks, instead we find a universe that is simply the geometry of motion; circles whose radius = Omega. There is nothing that could be described as physical or material, there is not even an esoteric energy. Our tangible solid universe is apparently no more real than the universe we construct in our dreams.
read Part I; the organic universe

**The 5th element**

**A 5 element theory and the fundamental constants of physics**

We are not sure where the 5 element theory of the universe originated, but by 500BC it had spread from Japan, China, Tibet, India to Europe. It included the 4 terrestrial elements (earth, water, fire, air) and a 5th celestial element, the fabric of the universe itself. Curiously physics also uses 4 elements, known as the mksA SI units (kg, m, s, A), and if we extrapolate from these we can propose a 5th celestial SI unit -Q, the square root of Planck momentum...

**The mystery of the Yin-yang**

**The Yin-yang and the wave-particle duality dilemma**

The present-day philosophical Yin-yang symbolizes a dualism, the original Taoist Yin-yang was a graph of a cyclic event over time, presumably the first Yin-yang mapped the ratio of sun and moon over the course of 1 year, it was therefore a 365 day clock.
Here I break the Yin-yang into 2 halves; a white circle and a black circle. The white circle has a radius r = +Omega, the black circle has a radius r = -Omega. When we re-combine both circles the area of our Yin-yang becomes 2piOmega^{2} (2πΩ^{2}), a single unit of Planck momentum - possibly the dark matter of physics and the fabric of our universe....
read more...

**Circular time and the Yin-yang universe**

**From a black-hole universe with a white-hole twin**

If we suppose our universe to be an expanding black-hole universe with a contracting white-hole universe twin, then we find a rationale for time, the arrow of time, relativity, dark-matter, dark-energy, mass, space etc where the complexity of our universe, as with all organic systems, arises because of time...
read more...

**The Matrix**

**The Mystery of the Mathematical Universe**

In the film The Matrix, the central theme was that our universe is not real, it is just a series of numbers...

The film was inspired by Pythagoras and Plato. In physics it is called a Mathematical Universe Hypothesis or MUH and relates to the origin of mathematics... is mathematics a human invention or do we discover it just as Columbus 'discovered' America (for example)... does the formula for a triangle exist in the same sense as an apple exists, could that solid chair upon which I sit be just a mathematical formula and so on...

The answer may be quite simple, I propose that the universe uses a well-known technique called modulation ... read more...

**Gravity & the Harmony of the Spheres**

**In which Pythagoras suggests an alternative**

In a theory known as the Harmony of the Spheres (or Music of the Spheres), Pythagoras proposed that the Sun, Moon and planets each emit their own unique 'hum' based on their orbital revolution.

When we follow this line of reasoning to its logical conclusion and do the mathematics, we find a solution for gravity that can also be applied to the nucleus, the atom and to molecules. The GUT Grand Unified Theory of physics then becomes a Greek Unified Theory. Pythagorean gravity suggests that the moon is not orbiting the earth, Newton's apple didn't fall ...

**Śūnyatā (emptiness or nothingness)**

**In which we build a universe from zero**

From the Buddhist and Hindu concepts of Śūnyatā (emptiness or nothingness) came the mathematical concept of zero. We show how from zero we can construct atoms. In fact it seems that we can build an entire universe from this mathematical zero. So then, what is zero? ...
read more...

**Cosmological constant and the double spiral**

**Fibonacci's golden ratio and the double or twin spiral**

The logarithmic spiral, the most famous being the Fibonacci spiral (the golden spiral or golden mean) is the classic example of a mathematical rule that applies to both living organisms and physical systems. According to a
University of Manchester
study; "The largest ever research project into mathematical patterns in flowers has proved a link between number sequences and nature, Manchester scientists said..."

The first 'attempt' at a Planck unit theory of nature was by an unknown Cro-Magnon ‘physicist’ 24,000 years ago who engraved onto a mammoth tooth a spiral made up with rows of dots. If we change 'dot' for Planck 'micro black-hole' then... read more...

**500BC Theory of Everything**

Nobel laureate Leon Lederman once wrote:

**Our universe; the great symphony**

To understand our universe, whose only dimensions are the dimensions of motion; momentum, time and velocity, and which is constantly growing in tempo, a sort of cosmic Bolero... we must first discard our 3-D view of the world in exchange for the language of music, for how can we use mass and length to describe a symphony?

**The Logos**

"Concepts that have proven useful in ordering things easily attain such an authority over us that we forget their Earthly origins and accept them as unalterable facts. The path of scientific advance is often made impassable for a long time through such errors... our conceptions of Physical Reality can never be definitive; we must always be ready to alter them, to alter, that is, the axiomatic basis of physics" -Albert Einstein

"We are all agreed that your theory is crazy. The question which divides us is whether it is crazy enough to have a chance of being correct" -Niels Bohr

read FAQs

**The Philosophy**

Continued from The Physics (above)

**evolution, fine-tuning cosmology and Intelligent Design**

If the natural fundamental physical constants are fixed in value, then the multiverse (fine-tuning cosmology) as a theory collapses, is Intelligent Design then left as the most probable cause?...

**Destiny, Buddhism, Taoism, Karma, Free-Will and wave-particle duality**

If this Yin-yang solution for wave-particle duality also applies to us, then Buddhist Karma becomes the
Portrait of Dorian Gray. Oscar Wilde meets the Tao...

**The Matrix, Mathematical Realism (Platonism) and a Mathematical Universe**

Just as we may use frequency modulation to transmit music (FM radio) so too the universe uses electron modulation and proton modulation to make atoms...